D. Chord of the second.
- 1. Intervallic stucture.
- 2. Resolution of the second as a dissonance.
- a. Tied note.
- b. Passing tone.
F.W. Marpurg: Systematische Einleitung in die musikalische Setzkunst nach den Lehrsatzen
des Herrn Rameau, (1757).
Handbuch bei dem Generalbass und der Komposition, (1755-58).
- A. Marpurg as a disciple of Ramesu.
- B. The combined Rameau-Marpurg system.
- C. Harmony as developed from the scale.
- D. Harmonic significance of intervals.
Daniel Gottlieb Turk: Kurze Anweisung zum Generalba$spielen, (1791, 1800).
- 1. Exceeds its precursors by C.P.E. Bach and Marpurg in its range and thoroughness.
- 2. The last textbook of the first generation of teaching manuals of keyboard instruments
before the era of the hammerklavier.
- Kurze Anweisung
- 1. One of the last textbooks in the declining tradition of thoroughbass.
- 2. Underwent a 5th edition through the efforts of J.F. Naue some 50 years
after it first appeared and was used by Beethoven in 1808.
- C. Unfinished Violinschule, (ca. 1799).
Georg Muffat: Regulae Concentuum Partiturae, (ca. 1699).
- A. Outstanding for its large quantity of fully figured and realized examples.
- B. Although Muffat has a concern for generally applicable rules,
he does no lose sight of actual practice.
- 1. Sounding, mi agains fa is accep[table in certain circumstances.
- 2. Full harpsichord doubling not strictly according to the rules.
- C. The common chord.
- 1. Intervallic structure.
- 2. Doubling.
- 3. Resolution of the third.
- D. The prepared seventh.
- E. The unprepared seventh.
- F. The passing seventh.
- G. The augmented sixth.
Jean-Philippe Rameau: Traite de L'Harmonie Reduite a ses Principes naturels, (1722).
- A. Scenario.
- B. Mathematical manipulation of thirds.
- C. Intervals arising from the partial series in an order of decreasing perfection.
- 1. Octave provides for inversion of intervals and chords by serving as a central bounday.
- 2. Fifth is the basis for all harmony.
- E. Inversion theory.
- 1. Primary consonance can never be regarded as the inversion of a secondary consonance.
- 2. The secondary depends on the primary for its definition.
- F. Explanation of dissonance.
- 1. The difference between consecutive consonances.
- 2. Alteration of consonances chromatically.
- G. Principles for defining a chord.
- 1. Chord may not exceed the range of an octave.
- 2. Fifth is the basis of all chords.
- 3. Either of the two thirds may determine the construction of the chord.
- H. Augmented and diminished chords not recognized because they do not contain a perfect
fifth and two thrids.
- I. The dominant seventh chord serves as a model for the treatment of dissonance.
- 1. Minor dissonance: dissonance between the root and seventh.
- 2. Major dissonance: dissonance between the major 3rd and the 7th.
- 3. The major third ascends.
- 4. The minor third ascends.
- J. All chords derived from the perfect major triad and the dominant
seventh by manipulating the different kinds of thirds.
- K. Bass represents the lowest and heaviest sound but not necessarily the root of chords
(that is fundamental bass).
- L. Voice leading.
- 1. Bass should proceed by consonant intervals.
- 2. Upper parts should move diatonically and more quickly than the bass.
- M. Cadences.
- 1. Perfect cadence: Five7-one.
- 2. Irregular cadence: bass ascends a fifth.
- 3. Broken cadence: Five7-six.
- 4. Interrupted cadence: Five7-Five7 of six.
- N. Tonic note alone bearing the perfect chord serves as the basis of tonality.
- O. The perfect cadence builds the major mode from a movement of tension to repose
(from less perfect to perfect).
- P. Notes contained within the octave according to an established proportion of
tones and semitones (scale degrees).
- Q. Same tonic note may bear two modes, distinguished as major or minor, depending
on the type of third within the tonic chord.
- R. Rule of the octave.
- S. Chromaticism used as chains of dominant-seventh resolutions.
- T. Harmony is the sole basis for music and produces the greatest effect on the listener
(as opposed to Gasparini, who felt that melody was the sole basis).
Johann Josef Fux: Gradus ad Parnassum, (1725).
- A. The study of fugue as central to Fux's work.
- B. THe church modes.
- 1. The diatonic system based on the mi/fa half-tone step.
- 2. Fux as a disciple of Palestrina.
- 3. the 16th Century polyphony as the ultimate standard of musical strictness and purity.
- 4. Construction and illustration of the modal system.
- C. Imitation.
- 1. Definition.
- 2. Examples.
- D. Fugue.
- 1. Fugue, as distinguished from imitation.
- 2. Entrances of the voices and thematic construction
according to the nature of the modes.
Giambattista Martini: Essemplare o sia saggio fondamentale prattico di contrappunto fugato,
- A. THe didactic method of Martini.
- B. Two-part fugue.
- 1. Clarification of the definitions of duo and duet (differences).
- 2. Duo by Giacomo Antonio Perti.
- C. Three-part fugue: Solfeggiamenti by Cristoforo Baresana.
- D. Four-part fugue: Four-part Dixit for voices and instruments by Angelo Predieri.
Friedrich Wilhem Marpurg: Abhandlung von der Fuge, (1753, 1754).
- A. Marpurg as an interpreter of Bach.
- B. Imitation as distinguished from repetition and transposition.
- C. Registers of voices.
- D. Species of imitation.
- 1. Imitation at the unison: imitatio homophonia.
- 2. Imitation at the upper or lower second: imitatio in secundo superiori ossia inferiori.
- 3. Imitation at the upper or lower third: imitatio in hyperitono ossia in hypoditono.
- 4. Imitation at the upper or lower fourth: imitatio in hyperdiatessaron ossia in
- 5. Imitation at the upper or lower fifth: imitatio in hyperdiapente ossia in hypodiapente.
- 6. Imitation at the upper or lower sixth: imitation in hexacordo superiori ossia inferiori.
- 7. Imitation at the upper or lower seventh: imitatio inheptacordo superiori ossia inferiori.
- 8. Imitation at the upper or lower octave: imitatio in hyperdiapason ossia in hypodiapason.
- E. Types of harmonic motion.
- 1. Direct or similar: modus rectus.
- 2. Indirect or dissimilar: modus contrarius.
- 3. Oblique: modus obliquus.
- F> Types of melodic motion.
- 1. Similar: imitatio aequalis motus.
- 2. Dissimilar or inverted: imitatio inaequalis motus.
- a. Strict: al contrario riverso.
- b. Free: al rovescio.
- 3. Retrograde: cancrizans.
- 4. Inverted retrograde: imitatio cancrizans in motu contrario.
- G. Rhythmic proportions of imitation.
- 1. Augmentation: imitatio per augmentationem.
- 2. Diminution: imitatio per diminutionem.
- 3. Interrupted imitation: imitatio interrupta.
- 4. Imitation in contrary rhythm: imitatio per arsib et thesin.
- H. Imitation in double counterpoint Iinvertible imitation): imitatio invertibilis.
- I. General categories of imitation.
- 1. Periodic: imitatio periodica (incidental or formal).
- 2. Canonic: imitatio canonica.
- J. Fugue: generla definition and number of voices.
- K. Formal proportions of the fugue.
- 1. Opening statement: phonagogos.
- 2. The Answer: comes, vox consequens.
- 3. The exposition: repercussio.
- 4. Counterpart or counterpoints.
- 5. Episodes.
- L. Types of fugue.
- 1. Regular: fuga propria
- a. Strict: fuga obbligata
- b. Free: fuga libera.
- 2. Irregular: fuga impropria.
- M. Simple and multiple fugues.
- N. Fugues distinguished according to the type of imitation.
- 1. By the interval of the answer.
- 2. By melodic motion of the answer.
- 3. By change of note values of the answer.
- a. Fugues by augmentation.
- b. Fugues by diminution.
- 4. Fugues by imitation in contrary rhythm.
- 5. Fugues with interrupted imitation.
- 6. Fugues combining all the mentioned devices: fuga mixta.
- O. Ordinary and extraordinary fugues.
- P. Types of fugue according to the note progressions within the theme.
- 1. Stepwise motion: fuga composita.
- 2. Motion by skip: fuga incomposita.
- 3. Ascending note direction: fuga authentica.
- 4. Descending note direction: fuga plagalis.
Johann Mattheson: Der volkommene Kapellmeister, (1739).
- A. Basic approach aimed at both the professional and amateur.
- 1. Diagram for the construction of the tonal answer.
- 2. Conciliato modorum.
- 3. Ratio between frequency of entrances and the basic tempo of the composition.
- 4. Duple meter yielding to a certain element of seriousness.
- B. Themata.
- C. Moduli.
- D. Loci topici: locus natationis.
- 1. Time value of the notes.
- 2. The interchange or exchange of notes: evolutio.
- 3. Repetition: clausula synonyma; answer: Wiederschlag / repercussio.
- 4. Canonic imitation.
General concepts of the Ornamentation school of music theorists.
- A. Later Baroque ornamentation, harmonic as well as melodic: long appoggiaturas give
rise to harmonic discrepancies when ornament is sounded with the original note.
- B. Vocal ornamentation in later Baroque music.
- 1. Ornamentation mainly empoyed in declamatory sections.
- 2. In simple strophic songs and all songs built around repeat structures, gradually
increased ornamentation builds interest.
- 3. Dr. Burney: History of Music (summary of ornamentation).
- C. Instrumental ornamentation in later Baroque music.
- 1. Slow movements require ornamentation for enrichment and diversification;
quick movements, if at all, for additional virtuosity.
- 2. C.P.E. Bach: Essay treatment of ornamentation.
- 3. Burney.
- D. Concerted ornamentation in chamber and orchestral music.
- 1. Joachim Quantz: Essay (flute playing).
- a. In a trio sonata, little ornamentation is used, and the second part must not be ornamentally
overshadowed by the first part.
- b. In a trio, both parts must sound the same embellishment at the same time.
- c. In a quartet there is even less opportunity for overly florid ornamentation.
- d. There is more freedom in a concerto for ornamentation, especially in the Adagio.
- E.National differences in embellishments.
- 1. Quantz:
- a. Pieces composed in the French style encompass composed appoggiaturas and trills,
leaving little opportunity for improvised embellishment.
- b. The simpler music of the Italian School leaves greater room for spontaneous ornamentation.
- 2. General comments concerning late Baroque ornamentation: Tosi. Opinioni.
- a. Keep embellishments idiomatic to the instrumentation
- b. Seek simple and natural solutions for all ornamentation.
- F. Jean-Henri D'Anglebert
- 1. Harpsichord music represents the French school between Chambonniere's two
Livres de clavecin in the early 1670's and the publications of the first decade of the 18th century.
- 2. Major contribution to the evolution of French keyboard ornamentation.
- 3. His table of ornaments is the most complete in the French classical repertory and
contains many new signs that later became common to Baroque music in general.
- G. Giuseppe Tartini
- l. Pre-Classical style as setting for ornamentation.
- a. Growing upper voice supremacy.
- b. Increasing harmonic support function of bass lines.
- c. Gradual shift from motivic interest to the complete phrase.
- d. Frequent echo effects.
- e. Elaborate cadential formulae.
- 2. Il Trattato, (1754).
- a. Attempt to reconcile empirical observation with classical harmonics and the laws of
physics and geometry.
- b. Difference tone (terzo suono).
- c. Melody.
- d. Cadence types.
- e. Dissonance.
- f. Scale structure.
- g. Harmonization.
Francois-Joseph Fetis: bringing the tradition into the 19th century.
- A. Through his writings he tried to develop the concept that art does not progress,
it simply changes.
- B. Biographie universelle des musiciens, (1835-44) contains a large amount of
information about his contemporaries.
- C. Equisse de l"Histoire de l'harmonie consideree comm art et comme science systematique,
(1840) shows the historical sequence of musical events as the development of a musical language.
- D. Philosophie generale de la musique (unfinished).
- E. Concerts Historiques: important concerts at which Fetis gave commentaries
on performance practices and ornamentation.
- F. Numerous studies that remain unfinished.
- 1. Edition of early theoretical writings.
- 2. Anthology of organ music.
- 3. Historical anthology of piano music.
- 4. Collection of vocal music from all countries.
- G. Methode des methodes de chant: inventory of didactic 18th and 19th century Italian, French,
and German works from which he extracted material for the training of singers and for the categorization
of vocal embellishments.
- H. Methode des methodes de piano: utilizes performance practice and examples of keyboard
ornamentation from Bach, Scarlatti, Clementi, Hummel, Beethoven, and Liszt in an attempt to
Other theorists: Vogler, Sechter, and Czerny have some peripheral roles in the development of keyboard