Music 266A Music of the 20th Century to 1942

The seminar will focus on four critical years in the first half of the 20th Century. A panoply of works, based on intrinsic musical worth as well as historical significance, has ben selected in order to illustrate the diversity of direction that i‚s‚ this century's most significant trait.

Each year will be dealt with over a two-week period and all students will report on one aspect of the critical year, from world-historical perspective to specific musical analysis. Ideally, each student will prepare at least four reports; at least one of the reports will be analytical. All students must have an intimate knowledge of the selected works, all of which are on reserve in the library (scores and tapes).

The works:

Mahler (1860-1911), Symphony No. 9
Berg, Alban (1885-1935), Sonata for Piano Op. 1, (1908)
Schoenberg (1874-1951), Three Piano Pieces, Op. 11
Ravel, Maurice (1875-1937), Daphnis and Chloe, (1909-11)
R. Strauss (1864-1949), Der RosenKavalier, (1910)
Stravinsky (1882-1971), Firebird, 1909, (1919, 1947)
Webern, Anton (1883-1945), Six Pieces for Orchestra Op. 6

Bartok,The Wooden Prince, Op. 13
Berg, Three Orchestra Pieces, Op. 6, (1914)
Debussy (1862-1918), En Blanc et Noir
Ives (1874-1954), Songs, Three Places in New Englnad
Kodaly (1882-1967), Sonata for Unaccompanied Violoncello

Bartok (1881-1945), Piano Concerto No. 2
Hindemith (1895-1963), Concert Music for Strings and Brass
Stravinsky, Symphony of Psalms
Vaughan Williams (1872-1958), Job, a Masque for Dancing
Webern, Quartet for Clarinet, Tenor Saxophone, violin, and Piano, Op. 22

Messiaen, Olivier (1908-1992), Quartet for the End of Time, (1941)
Copland (1900-1990), Rodeo
Martinu (1890-1959), Symphony NO. 1
Prokofiev (1891-1953), Piano Sonata No. 7
Schoenberg, Ode to Napoleon Bonaparte
Bartok, Concerto for Orchestra, (1943)


When the composers or their works are discussed, certain questions will always be addressed :
1. Where does the piece occur in the composer's output with regard to type and time?
2. Is there a relationship to a national style or an international trend?
3. What is the influence (of the composer or piece) on contemporaries and succeeding generations?
4. Are there extramusical considerations (in or on the work)?
5. Is the work/composer visionary, traditional, etc.?
6. Is there a specific relationship to the other arts (in opera, ballet, or multimedia works the question assume wider dinensions)?


Most of your research will come from periodicals and your own analysis. Below is a list of the most useful journals. Below that is a list of books which have mostly reliable information:


American Music, Dissonanz-Dissonance, Journal of the Arnold Schoenberg Institute, Journal of Music Theory, Melos, The Music Review, Perspectives of New Music


  • Adorno, Theodor, Alban Berg, (transl. Brand and Hailey), Cambridge, 1991.
  • Bailey, Kathryn, The Twelve-note Music of Anton Webern, Cambridge, 1991.
  • Bartok, Bela, Essays, ed. Suchoff, Nebraska, 1976.
  • Beaumont, Antony, Busoni, The Composer, Indiana, 1985.
  • Blaukopf and Jephcott (eds.), Gustav Mahler-Richard Strauss Correspondence 1888-1911, Chicago, 1980.
  • Boyden, Matthew, Richard Strauss, Northeastern University Press, 1999.
  • Craft, R., and Stravinsky, I, 6 vols. under various titles, NY, 1969.
  • Cross, Jonathan, THe Stavinsky Legacy, Cambridge, 1998.
  • De La Grange, Henry, Gustave Mahler, 2 vols., NY 1979.
  • Forte, Allen, The Structure of Atonal Music, Yale, 1973.
  • Frisch, Walter, The Early Works of Arnold Schoenberg 1893-1908, U. of Calif Press, 1993.
  • Gann, Kyle, American Music in the Twentieth Century, Schirmer Books, 1997.
  • Griffiths, Paul, Encyclopaedia of 20th-Century Music, Thames and Hudson, 1986.
  • Hahl-Koch, Jelena (ed.), Arnold Schoenberg- Wassily Kandinsky, London, 1984.
  • Haimo, Ethan, Schoenberg's Serial Odyssey, Oxford, 1990.
  • Hill, Peter, The Messiaen Companion, Amadeus Press, 1995.
  • Hindemith, Paul, The Craft of Music Composition, Vol I, (transl. Mendel, NY, 1937.
  • Kennedy, Michael, The Works of Ralph Vaughan Williams, London, 1964.
  • Kirkpatrick, John (ed.), Charles E. Ives Memos, W.W> Norton, 1972.
  • Materials and Techniques of Twentieth-Century Music, Prentice Hall, 1999.
  • Large, Brian, Martinu, London, 1975.
  • Leibowitz, Rene, Schoenberg and his School,(transl. Newlin), NY, 1975.
  • Lester, Joel, Analytic Approaches to Twentieth-Century Music, W.W. Norton, 1989.
  • Lockspeiser, Edward, , London, 1965.
  • Mitchell, Donald, Gustav Mahler, 3 Vols. Berkeley, 1980.
  • Moldenauer, Hans, Anton von Webern, London, 1979.
  • Morgan, Robert P., Twentieth-Century Music, W.W. Norton, 1991.
  • Oliver, Michael, Igor Stravinsky, Phaidon, 1995.
  • Pasler, Jan (ed.), Confronting Stravinsky, Berkeley, 1986.
  • Perle, George, Serial Composition and Atonality, Berkeley, 1968.
  • Persichetti, Vincent, Twentieth-Century Harmony, NY, 1961.
  • Reich, Willi, Alban Berg, (transl. Cardew), NY, 1965.
  • Rosen, Charles, Arnold Schoenberg, NY, 1975.
  • Rufer, Josef, The Works of Arnold Schoenberg, London, 1962.
    Contains a complete catalog.
  • Samson, Jim, Music in Transition, NY, 1977.
  • Simms, Bryan (ed.), Composers on Modern Musical Culture, Schirmer Books, 1999.
  • Simms, Bryan, Music of the Twentieth Century, Schirmer Books, 1996.
  • Schoenberg, Arnold, Structural Functions of Harmony, (ed. Stein), London, 1969.
  • Stravinksy, Igor, Autobiography, NY, 1936.
  • Swafford, Jan, Charles Ives, A Life with Music, W.W. Norton, 1996.
  • van den Toorn, Pieter, The Music of Igor Stravinsky, Yale, 1983.
  • Varese, Louise, Varese, A Looking-glass Diary, Vol. I, NY, 1972.
  • Walsh, Stephen, Stravinsky, Knopf, 1999.
  • Webern, Anton, The Path to the New Music, (transl. Black), Bryn Mawr, 1963.
  • Whittall, Arnold, Music Since the First World War, London, 1977.
  • Wildgans, Friedrich, Anton Webern, (transl. Roberts), London, 1966.
    Contains a complete catalog.

  • Updated, September 4, 2000.